Die bariatrischen Operationen führen bei starker Adipositas zu langfristiger Gewichtsabnahme und Reduktion der Gesamtmortalität.
Sjöström L, Narbro K, Sjöström CD, et al. Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl J Med 2007;357(8):741–52
The prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects study involved 4047 obese subjects. Of these subjects, 2010 underwent bariatric surgery (surgery group) and 2037 received conventional treatment (matched control group). We report on overall mortality during an average of 10.9 years of follow-up. At the time of the analysis (November 1, 2005), vital status was known for all but three subjects (follow-up rate, 99.9%).
The average weight change in control subjects was less than ±2% during the period of up to 15 years during which weights were recorded. Maximum weight losses in the surgical subgroups were observed after 1 to 2 years: gastric bypass, 32%; vertical-banded gastroplasty, 25%; and banding, 20%. After 10 years, the weight losses from baseline were stabilized at 25%, 16%, and 14%, respectively. There were 129 deaths in the control group and 101 deaths in the surgery group. The unadjusted overall hazard ratio was 0.76 in the surgery group (P=0.04), as compared with the control group, and the hazard ratio adjusted for sex, age, and risk factors was 0.71 (P=0.01). The most common causes of death were myocardial infarction (control group, 25 subjects; surgery group, 13 subjects) and cancer (control group, 47; surgery group, 29).
Bariatric surgery for severe obesity is associated with long-term weight loss and decreased overall mortality.
Figure 1. Mean Percent Weight Change during a 15-Year Period in the Control Group and the Surgery Group, According to the Method of Bariatric Surgery.
Figure 2. Unadjusted Cumulative Mortality. The hazard ratio for subjects who underwent bariatric surgery, as compared with control subjects, was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 0.99; P=0.04), with 129 deaths in the control group and 101 in the surgery group.
Schauer PR, Bhatt DL, Kirwan JP, et al. Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy for diabetes – 5-year outcomes. N Engl J Med 2017;376(7):641–51
5-Jahres Ergebnisdaten zeigen bei Patienten mit BMI zwischen 27 und 43 dass bariatrische OP plus intensive medikamentöse Therapie effektiver ist in der Reduktion bzw. in einigen Fällen sogar Heilung von Hyperglykämie als intensive medikamentöse Therapie alleine.
We assessed outcomes 5 years after 150 patients who had type 2 diabetes and a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 27 to 43 were randomly assigned to receive intensive medical therapy alone or intensive medical therapy plus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy. The primary outcome was a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.0% or less with or without the use of diabetes medications.
Of the 150 patients who underwent randomization, 1 patient died during the 5-year follow-up period; 134 of the remaining 149 patients (90%) completed 5 years of follow-up. At baseline, the mean (±SD) age of the 134 patients was 49±8 years, 66% were women, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 9.2±1.5%, and the mean BMI was 37±3.5. At 5 years, the criterion for the primary end point was met by 2 of 38 patients (5%) who received medical therapy alone, as compared with 14 of 49 patients (29%) who underwent gastric bypass (unadjusted P=0.01, adjusted P=0.03, P=0.08 in the intention-to-treat analysis) and 11 of 47 patients (23%) who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (unadjusted P=0.03, adjusted P=0.07, P=0.17 in the intention-to-treat analysis). Patients who underwent surgical procedures had a greater mean percentage reduction from baseline in glycated hemoglobin level than did patients who received medical therapy alone (2.1% vs. 0.3%, P=0.003). At 5 years, changes from baseline observed in the gastric-bypass and sleeve-gastrectomy groups were superior to the changes seen in the medical-therapy group with respect to body weight (−23%, −19%, and −5% in the gastric-bypass, sleeve-gastrectomy, and medical-therapy groups, respectively), triglyceride level (−40%, −29%, and −8%), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (32%, 30%, and 7%), use of insulin (−35%, −34%, and −13%), and quality-of-life measures (general health score increases of 17, 16, and 0.3; scores on the RAND 36-Item Health Survey ranged from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better health) (P<0.05 for all comparisons). No major late surgical complications were reported except for one reoperation.
Five-year outcome data showed that, among patients with type 2 diabetes and a BMI of 27 to 43, bariatric surgery plus intensive medical therapy was more effective than intensive medical therapy alone in decreasing, or in some cases resolving, hyperglycemia.
Figure 1. Mean Changes in Measures of Diabetes Control from Baseline to 5 Years.
Shown are the mean glycated hemoglobin levels (Panel A), the percent change in diabetes medications during the study period (Panel B), the changes in body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) (Panel C), and the mean glycated hemoglobin levels according to BMI (Panel D) over a 5-year period among patients receiving intensive medical therapy alone, those who underwent sleeve gastrectomy, and those who underwent a gastric bypass procedure. I bars indicate standard errors. Mean values in each group are provided below the graphs; in Panels A and D, median values are also provided in parentheses. P values for the comparison between each surgical group and the medical-therapy group in Panels A, C, and D were derived from overall treatment effect in the repeated measurements model. In Panel D, P<0.001 for the comparison between the surgical groups and the medical-therapy group for the subgroup of patients with a BMI of less than 35; P<0.01 for the comparison for the subgroup with a BMI of 35 or more.
Peterli R, Steinert RE, Woelnerhanssen B, Peters T, Christoffel-Courtin C, Gass M, et al. Metabolic and hormonal changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: a randomized, prospective trial. Obes Surg. 2012;22(5):740–8. The mechanisms of amelioration of glycemic control early after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG)
Bariatrische Operationen haben einen messbaren Effekt auf gastrointestinale Hormone, welcher auch einen weiteren Mechanismus für die Wirkung dieser Operationen darstellen könnte.
In this prospective, randomized 1-year trial, outcomes of LRYGB and LSG patients were compared, focusing on possibly responsible mechanisms. Twelve patients were randomized to LRYGB and 11 to LSG. These non-diabetic patients were investigated before and 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after surgery. A standard test meal was given after an overnight fast, and blood samples were collected before, during, and after food intake for hormone profiles (cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY)).
In both groups, body weight and BMI decreased markedly and comparably leading to an identical improvement of abnormal glycemic control (HOMA index). Post-surgery, patients had markedly increased postprandial plasma GLP-1 and PYY levels (p < 0.05) with ensuing improvement in glucose homeostasis. At 12 months, LRYGB ghrelin levels approached preoperative values. The postprandial, physiologic fluctuation returned, however, while LSG ghrelin levels were still markedly attenuated. One year postoperatively, CCK concentrations after test meals increased less in the LRYGB group than they did in the LSG group, with the latter showing significantly higher maximal CCK concentrations (p < 0.012 vs. LRYGB).
Bypassing the foregut is not the only mechanism responsible for improved glucose homeostasis. The balance between foregut (ghrelin, CCK) and hindgut (GLP-1, PYY) hormones is a key to understanding the underlying mechanisms.
Fasting and meal-stimulated time courses of ghrelin and CCK in the two groups of patients (LRYGB and LSG) before, as well as 1 week and 3 and 12 months after the respective operation. a Ghrelin in the LRYGB group, b CCK in the LRYGB group, c ghrelin in the LSG group, d CCK in the LSG group
Fasting and meal-stimulated time courses of GLP-1 and PYY in the two groups of patients (LRYGB and LSG) before, as well as 1 week and 3 and 12 months after the respective operation. a GLP-1 in the LRYGB group, b PYY in the LRYGB group, c GLP-1 in the LSG group, d PYY in the LSG group.